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Carbonate & buffer complex for balanced formation of Coral Skeleton
Calcium, magnesium, strontium and carbonate are the basic foundation elements of coral skeletons.
All of these elements need to be available in balanced proportions for coral health and growth.
Red Sea’s KH/ALKALINITY is a complex of carbonate and other buffers present in seawater that maintain proper alkalinity and pH, and is part of Red Sea’s complete Reef Care program.
Aquarium Type Average daily usage
Liquid ml/100L (25gal) Powder g/100L (25gal)
Mixed Reef 9ml 2.7g
SPS Frag 18ml 5.4g
SPS Dominant 12ml 3.6g
Ultra Low nutrient SPS 6ml 1.8g
Liquid supplement: 1ml will raise the Alk level of 100 liters (25 gal) by 0.036 meq/l (0.1dKH)
Powder supplement: 1g will raise the Alk level of 100 liters (25 gal) 0.12 meq/l (0.33dKH)
1 kg will make 10L of stock solution.
Red Sea’s Foundation Elements – It’s all in the balance.
A successful coral reef aquarium is dependent upon maintaining the appropriate water parameters that, in turn, provide the stable environment required by the corals.
Although all the elements found in natural seawater have an important role in providing the optimal water parameters, a few of them have a more significant role in the overall stability. These elements are the foundation of the reef environment and they include the three major elements: calcium (Ca), magnesium (Mg) and bicarbonates (HCO3).
These three reef foundation elements have a major effect on the water chemistry (pH stability, alkalinity and seawater ionic strength) and on many of the coral’s biological processes (skeleton formation, ions exchange and photosynthesis).
Red Sea’s Foundation Elements provides a complete solution for maintaining and replenishing the foundation building blocks of the reef aquarium by providing complete and balanced supplements, formulated to work together for long term use and without changing the ionic balance of the water.
Optimal levels of the Reef Foundation Elements
Unlike the natural reef environment, where there is an immense reservoir of the foundation elements, the reef aquarium is an artificial environment that is constantly affected by chemical changes. Therefore, the reef foundation elements must be monitored and replenished constantly. Research has also shown that the optimal levels of these elements should be maintained according to the variety and maturity of the specific coral population. In order to accurately select the optimal level for your reef aquarium system, it is best to use the values for the most demanding coral species in your marine aquarium.
Optimal levels of salinity, KH, Ca & Mg according to type of aquarium:
Aquarium Type Salinity (ppt) Alkalinity (dkh) Ca (ppm) Mg (ppm)
Mixed Reef 34 11.5 450 1350
SPS Frag 35 12 465 1390
SPS Dominant 34 8 430 1280
Ultra Low nutrient SPS 33 7 410 1220
Marine Fish 30 6.5-7 360-380 1060-1130
Implementing Red Sea’s Foundation Elements will maintain the required concentration of Foundation Elements, providing optimal conditions for enhancing coral calcification rates through increasing passive diffusion, while reducing the energetic demands on the coral caused by the need to pump the elements into the calcification centers.The end result is stronger, healthier and more colorful corals.